Colloidal Crystals of Spheres and Cubes in Real and Reciprocal Space

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Except for the Al—Li—Cu system, all the stable quasicrystals are almost free of defects and disorder, as evidenced by X-ray and electron diffraction revealing peak widths as sharp as those of perfect crystals such as Si. Diffraction patterns exhibit fivefold, threefold, and twofold symmetries, and reflections are arranged quasiperiodically in three dimensions.

The origin of the stabilization mechanism is different for the stable and metastable quasicrystals. Nevertheless, there is a common feature observed in most quasicrystal-forming liquid alloys or their undercooled liquids: a local icosahedral order. The icosahedral order is in equilibrium in the liquid state for the stable quasicrystals, whereas the icosahedral order prevails in the undercooled liquid state for the metastable quasicrystals.

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A nanoscale icosahedral phase was formed in Zr-, Cu- and Hf-based bulk metallic glasses alloyed with noble metals. Most quasicrystals have ceramic-like properties including high thermal and electrical resistance, hardness and brittleness, resistance to corrosion, and non-stick properties. Metallic quasicrystalline coatings can be applied by plasma-coating or magnetron sputtering. A problem that must be resolved is the tendency for cracking due to the materials' extreme brittleness.

An application was the use of low-friction Al-Cu-Fe-Cr quasicrystals [45] as a coating for frying pans. However, cooking with a lot of salt would etch the quasicrystalline coating used, and the pans were eventually withdrawn from production.

Shechtman had one of these pans. The Nobel citation said that quasicrystals, while brittle, could reinforce steel "like armor". When Shechtman was asked about potential applications of quasicrystals he said that a precipitation-hardened stainless steel is produced that is strengthened by small quasicrystalline particles. It does not corrode and is extremely strong, suitable for razor blades and surgery instruments.

The small quasicrystalline particles impede the motion of dislocation in the material. Quasicrystals were also being used to develop heat insulation, LEDs , diesel engines, and new materials that convert heat to electricity. Shechtman suggested new applications taking advantage of the low coefficient of friction and the hardness of some quasicrystalline materials, for example embedding particles in plastic to make strong, hard-wearing, low-friction plastic gears.

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The low heat conductivity of some quasicrystals makes them good for heat insulating coatings. Other potential applications include selective solar absorbers for power conversion, broad-wavelength reflectors, and bone repair and prostheses applications where biocompatibility, low friction and corrosion resistance are required. Magnetron sputtering can be readily applied to other stable quasicrystalline alloys such as Al-Pd-Mn. While saying that the discovery of icosahedrite, the first quasicrystal found in nature, was important, Shechtman saw no practical applications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Not to be confused with Quasi-crystals supramolecular. Chemical structure. In his popular book What is life? Journal of Colloid Science. Schnitzenbaumer; C. Ghosh; C. Jenks; A. Ross; T. Lograsso; J. Evans; P.

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Thiel Physical Review B. Bibcode : PhRvB.. Part I.

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Pentagonal, octagonal, decagonal and dodecagonal quasicrystals". Bibcode : ZK Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original on December 5, Retrieved January 4, Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL.. Retrieved Physica A. Bibcode : PhyA.. Acta Crystallographica A. Bibcode : LNP Bibcode : JCrGr.. Blech Metall Mater Trans A. Bibcode : MTA Philosophical Magazine. Bibcode : PMag Eiler; Yunbin Guan; Lincoln S. Steinhardt; Nan Yao Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Colloidal Crystals of Spheres and Cubes in Real and Reciprocal Space

Bibcode : PNAS.. A relatively small change from a sphere to a rounded cube already gives rise to new structures. This thesis is an in-depth study of the effect of colloidal particle shape, namely spheres and cubes, on the self-organization and the final crystal symmetries that can be achieved. The thesis research employs state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction and microscopy techniques for the detailed characterization of colloidal crystal structures prepared using various self-assembly techniques.

Furthermore, the thesis shows that by making use of thermo-responsive particle systems, defect formation and diffusion can be studied in situ.

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Formation of three-dimensional colloidal crystals in a nematic liquid crystal

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